Everyone probably knows the story of how the European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) came to the shores of America during the 19th century, but for those who don’t, this is how it goes.
The American Acclimatization Society was a group founded in New York City in 1871 dedicated to introducing European flora and fauna into North America for “both economic and cultural reasons.1” By 1877 New York pharmacist Eugene Schieffelin, an avid admirer of Shakespeare, was the society’s driving force. He allegedly proposed to introduce every species of bird mentioned in the plays of William Shakespeare to the United States.
Whether this account is accurate or not, between 1890 and 1891, one hundred European or Common Starlings were released in New York’s Central Park. This release has since exploded into the currently estimated count of over 200 million European Starlings now residing in North America alone2.
Starlings are a super competitive cavity nesting bird that aggressively evicts other species from nesting cavities. Although few conclusive studies have been done, anecdotal evidence suggests that they have had a detrimental effect on many of our native cavity nesting species2.
This is one of the reasons why so many bird lovers dislike the European Starling. They compete for nesting cavities with Wood Ducks, Buffleheads, Great Crested and Ash-throated Flycatchers, Tree Swallows and several species of woodpeckers and sapsuckers.
Even more distressing for people who work to conserve our native populations of Eastern and Western Bluebirds and Purple Martins, European Starlings as well as House Sparrows are considered to be the greatest threat to successfully increasing the populations of these native birds.
These Starlings were nesting in a huge oak tree in my friend’s front yard where there appeared to be plenty of cavities available for both the Starlings and the Acorn Woodpeckers.
Needless to say, human activities have been most instrumental in the decline of cavity nesting species in the United States. Forest management practices that reduce the availability of dead trees and snags that offer possible homes for these cavity nesting birds is just one of the obstacles conservationists have been dealing with since the mid 1900′s.
My friend Ingrid over at the Free Quark offers an interesting and valid argument in her post on the European Starling that “the biggest threat to any native species is our own voracious appetite for development, which reduces viable habitat for all species to a point where competition becomes exacerbated.”
All this aside, whether you are a farmer trying to limit the economic damage caused by starlings to planted crops, fruit production, and livestock feed losses, or a Purple Martin advocate trying to keep starlings out of your Purple Martin houses, you can’t help but look upon a murmuration of starlings as a beautiful and amazing happening in nature. Enjoy this video of thousands of European Starlings as they swarm in the evening sky before going to roost.
Larry Jordan was introduced to birding after moving to northern California where he was overwhelmed by the local wildlife, forcing him to buy his first field guide just to be able to identify all the species visiting his yard. Building birdhouses and putting up feeders brought the avian fauna even closer and he was hooked. Larry wanted to share his passion for birds and conservation and hatched The Birder's Report in September of 2007. His recent focus is on bringing the Western Burrowing Owl back to life in California where he also monitors several bluebird trails. He is a BirdLife Species Champion and contributes to several other conservation efforts, being the webmaster for Wintu Audubon Society and the habitat manager for the Burrowing Owl Conservation Network. He is now co-founder of a movement to create a new revenue stream for our National Wildlife Refuges with a Wildlife Conservation Stamp.
Donna's 2014 Year List - 491
Redgannet's 2014 Year List - 470
Carlos's 2014 Year List - 325
Corey's 2014 Year List - 225
Clare M's 2014 Year List - 208
Jochen's 2014 Year List - 184
Duncan's 2014 Year List - 174
Carrie's 2014 Year List - 047
Carlos's 2013 Year List - 1587
Jochen's 2013 Year List - 553
Corey's 2013 Year List - 511
Donna's 2013 Year List - 438
Duncan's 2013 Year List - 430
Clare M's 2013 Year List - 368
Redgannet's 2013 Year List - 212
Larry's 2013 Year List - 206
Redgannet's 2012 Year List - 660
Jochen's 2012 Year List - 542
Corey's 2012 Year List - 525
Felonious Jive's 2012 Year List - 404
Duncan's 2012 Year List - 402
Clare M's 2012 Year List - 300
Clare K's 2012 Year List - 040
Greg's 2012 Year List - 004